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Absorption of crude ubiquinone powder is as low as 1% because: (i) Crude ubiquinone crystals have poor solubility as they are fat soluble and also clump together in the aqueous environment of the gut and are thus too large to absorb; (ii) CoQ10 has a melting point of 48-52ºC so it does not melt at body temperature(1).
There are many different preparations of CoQ10 available on the market now in which different technological approaches have been used to increase absorption and bioavailability of the raw CoQ10 (2,3). Some examples of these delivery systems include oily dispersions, self-emulsified drug delivery systems, nanoemulsions, polymeric nanoparticles, nanoliposomes, lipid nanoparticles and cyclodextrin encapsulation(3).
Plusvital’s EnerGene Q10 uses a patented cyclodextrin encapsulated form of CoQ10 called MicroActive CoQ10. Cyclodextrin is essentially a cone shaped structure composed of sugar units, the interior of which is fat soluble and exterior is water soluble. In this way, a single molecule of the raw, fat soluble CoQ10 sits inside two cyclodextrin cones and the overall complex then dissolves in water as the exterior of the complex is water soluble(4). This then allows for efficient transport through the digestive system and these micronized particles allow for delivery of individual molecules of CoQ10 to the intestinal wall for absorption, at which point the complex comes apart releasing the CoQ10 to the luminal surface of the intestinal cells.
Clinical trials in humans compared MicroActive CoQ10 to crystalline and solubilized versions of CoQ10. MicroActive CoQ10 provides CoQ10 in a form which has been clinically proven to have superior bioavailability compared to other formulations of CoQ10. One study showed a sustained release and significantly improved bioavailability compared to the crystalline form of CoQ10 (5). More importantly within this study the inter-subject variance in the bioavailability of the solubilized form was significantly greater than in the other two forms. This essentially means that in products which use a solubilized form (i.e. CoQ10 in medium chain triglycerides) that this works well in some subjects and poorly in others and that there is no consistency in absorption across subjects within the study. In contrast, MicroActive CoQ10 shows increased absorption in all subjects and is termed to have “universal bioavailability” (6). In the second study, the 0 to 24 hour absorption confirmed the sustained-release property of the MicroActive CoQ10 complex as well as the significantly higher and uniform bioavailability. All human subjects in this study showed a doubling in the plasma CoQ10 levels after 21 days of MicroActive CoQ10 supplementation, which represents a 100% response rate5. The solubilized form showed a response rate of only 44%, again confirming the greater and more uniform bioavailability of the MicroActive product.
This unique technology provides increased solubility to CoQ10, and thus, ensures universally enhanced absorption from the intestine. Subsequently, this reduces the requirement to orally supplement CoQ10 at higher doses. Additionally, as CoQ10 is fat soluble low dosing can be used over a longer period which will result in elevated plasma and tissue CoQ10 concentrations as the fat solubility allows for accumulation within tissues.
To date, there is very little research published on the properties of CoQ10 in relation to the physiology of horses. There is also very little information available on oral supplementation of CoQ10 in horses and CoQ10 absorption or tissue bioavailability data. Plusvital researchers have previously identified that the stamina group of horses, as identified by Plusvital’s Speed Gene Test, actually have lower concentrations of skeletal muscle CoQ10 when compared to other horses (7).
Further to this, Plusvital researchers have recently completed a field research study with oral supplementation of MicroActive CoQ10. This involved daily supplementation of 200mg of CoQ10 in the MicroActive CoQ10 form for nine weeks with plasma samples and skeletal muscle biopsies collected both before and after the supplementation trial. The results were observed to show a 40% increase in CoQ10 skeletal muscle concentrations after nine weeks supplementation (8).
This result indicates three points in relation to the use of MicroActive CoQ10 in horses: 1. MicroActive CoQ10 is absorbed successfully within the equine intestine and reaches the circulation 2. MicroActive CoQ10 accesses the equine skeletal muscle tissue were it is has an integral function in aerobic energy generation 3. MicroActive CoQ10 accumulates over time in equine skeletal muscle tissue with daily supplementation.
Proven In Horses
MicroActive CoQ10 is the world’s first CoQ10 product to be shown to reach equine skeletal muscle tissue after a period of oral supplementation. With the potential positive impact that CoQ10 can have on aerobic energy production with skeletal muscle tissue, it is extremely beneficial to know that this formulation of CoQ10 can access this site. With ever decreasing margins between equine competitors, there is a general demand to find ways in which supplementation can enable the cells within the equine body to maximise their full potential in terms of more efficient energy production and reduced recovery times in relation to expanding competition calendars. MicroActive CoQ10, a scientifically research backed supplement, is a primary candidate in this to fill such a role within the equine diet.
- Judy WV., Stogsdil WW., Judy DS. and Judy JS., 2007, Coenzyme Q10 facts or fabrications, Natl Prod Insid, 2, 1-4.
- Kalenikova E.I., Gorodetskaya E.A. and Medvedev O.S., 2009, Bioavailability of coenzyme Q10 in various pharmaceutical formulations, Pharm Chem J, 43(8), 468-471.
- Barakat A., Shegokar R., Dittgen M. and Müller R.H., 2013, Coenzyme Q10 oral bioavailability: effect of formulation type, J Pharm Invest, 43(6), 431-451.
- Fir M.M., Smidovnik A., Milivojevic L., Zmitek J. and Prosek M., 2009, Studies of CoQ10 and cyclodextrin complexes: solubility, thermo-and photo-stability, J Incl Phenom Macro, 64(3-4), 225-232.
- Madhavi D. and Kagan D., 2010, A study on the bioavailability of a novel sustained-release coenzyme Q10-β-cyclodextrin complex, Integr Med, 9(1), 20-24.
- Kagan D., Madhavi D., Bank G. and Lachlan K., 2010, Universal” and “reliable” bioavailability claims: criteria that may increase physician confidence in nutritional supplements, Nat Med J, 2(1), 1-5.
- Rooney M.F., Porter R.K., Katz L.M. and Hill E.W., 2017, Skeletal muscle mitochondrial bioenergetics and associations with myostatin genotypes in the Thoroughbred horse. PloS one, 12(11), p.e0186247.
- Hill E.W., Rooney M.F., Porter R.K., Curley C., Parnell A.C., Griffin M. and Katz L.M., 2018, A field trial to establish the bioavailability of MicroActive® CoQ10 in targeting skeletal muscle mitochondria in horses, in preparation.
Dr. Michael Griffin completed a BSc (Hons) followed by PhD in Chemistry in UCD (2001-2009). His PhD work involved structural, magnetic and photomagnetic studies of Iron(III) spin crossover complexes intended for use in molecular data storage devices. He then worked as a postdoctoral researcher for a year (2009-2010) completing research on the synthesis and characterisation of novel Ruthenium dyes for use in solar cells. He subsequently graduated from Veterinary Medicine in UCD (2011-2016) during which time he developed a keen interest in equine veterinary medicine and research. Specifically, he is interested in sports-related equine veterinary and also equine reproduction including advanced reproductive technologies.
Having being raised in a family which always had involvement in the equine industry he has enjoyed competing horses in show jumping, point-to- point and endurance riding competitions for many years which included reaching an international level in endurance racing.
For more details visit EnerGene Q10 horse supplement.